Dyslexia and Neuroscience : The Geschwind-Galaburda Hypothesis 30 Years Later

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Feb 172018
 

Thirty years ago, the groundbreaking Geschwind-Galaburda hypothesis defined the field of dyslexia, revealing and analyzing the complex associations among brain development, hormones, immune activity, and brain lateralization. This important volume revisits the hypothesis three decades later and explores key questions: What have we learned since then, and what still needs to be investigated?

Based on presentations from the 2016 Extraordinary Brain Symposium—and co-edited by one of the authors of the original hypothesis—this book synthesizes current dyslexia findings from more than 30 top researchers and practitioners. The contributors share diverse perspectives, concerns, challenges, and solutions, with brief jargon-free summaries at the beginning of each chapter to make the book accessible to a wider audience. Each chapter also points to research gaps and remaining questions to help shape future innovations from the next generation of researchers. A landmark addition to the literature on dyslexia and neuroscience, this forward-thinking volume should be on the shelf of every researcher and graduate student whose work focuses on neuroscience and dyslexia.Explore current findings on:

– the clinical and sociological aspects of dyslexia
– early atypical brain development in developmental dyslexia
– reading in children with developmental disorders
– brain asymmetries and sex differences in developmental dyslexia
– sex differences in cognition and learning
– intergenerational transmission of reading and reading brain networks
– animal models of early neural disruption
– the genetic factors that underlie handedness and left hemisphere language dominance
– the genetics of specific reading disability
– and more essential dyslexia topics

 

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Case Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

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Feb 172018
 

This handbook is a collection of clinical narratives that underscore the heterogeneous and unpredictable presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) and give real-world clinical context to recent drug developments. This accessible and concise publication is intended to be used by a wide range of medical professionals, from specialist neurologists to medical trainees with an interest in neurology. An ideal clinical resource, Case Studies in Multiple Sclerosis provides an evidence-based discussion of each case, with an aim to enhance effective diagnosis and treatment of patients with MS and MS-related conditions.
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Neuropsychology of Criminal Behavior

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Feb 172018
 

This book draws on findings from psychology, neurology, and genetics, to offer a multi-dimensional analysis of criminal behavior. It explores the biological bases of emotions such as aggression, anger, and hostility and how they– combined with social psychological influences, such as family history and environmental conditions– may lead to violence. Specific case studies, including serial killings, mass murders, family violence, cannibalism, and hitmen, are referenced throughout, providing real-world examples of these theories in action. Issues of free will and the law are discussed as well as suggestions for curbing violent behavior.

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Brain Source Localization Using EEG Signal Analysis

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Feb 152018
 

 

 Of the research areas devoted to biomedical sciences, the study of the brain remains a field that continually attracts interest due to the vast range of people afflicted with debilitating brain disorders and those interested in ameliorating its effects. To discover the roots of maladies and grasp the dynamics of brain functions, researchers and practitioners often turn to a process known as brain source localization, which assists in determining the source of electromagnetic signals from the brain. Aiming to promote both treatments and understanding of brain ailments, ranging from epilepsy and depression to schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease, the authors of this book provide a comprehensive account of current developments in the use of neuroimaging techniques for brain analysis. Their book addresses a wide array of topics, including EEG forward and inverse problems, the application of classical MNE, LORETA, Bayesian based MSP, and its modified version, M-MSP. Within the ten chapters that comprise this book, clinicians, researchers, and field experts concerned with the state of brain source localization will find a store of information that can assist them in the quest to enhance the quality of life for people living with brain disorders.
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The 2 x 4 Model: A Neuroscience-Based Blueprint for the Modern Integrated Addiction and Mental Health Treatment System

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Feb 152018
 

 

Over a quarter century of studies have shown that addictions, mental illnesses, and their combinations (dual diagnoses) are pervasive in the general population. Meanwhile, emerging neuroscience is revealing that the neurodevelopmental basis of major mental illness and addiction diseases are tightly interconnected and often unified pathologies of the brain. This science calls into question the profound split between the addiction and mental health fields that define our fragmented research, professional training, and treatment delivery systems―a split that leaves most patients out of reach of adequate professional expertise and evidence-based standards of care. The 2 x 4 Model, as described in this translational textbook of Addiction Psychiatry, is the essential blueprint and operational manual for the fully integrated, expertly staffed, Dual Diagnosis clinic― a clinic that is maximally capable and efficient in treating the full spectrum of addictions, mental illness, and their comorbidities, through integration of psychotherapies and medications, by one team under one roof. Replication of 2 x 4 Model Clinics into a national system would allow widespread access to excellent, transparent standards of Addiction Psychiatry as a decisive measure against mass incarceration and the exploding health care crisis of untreated addictions, all while rebuilding brain health as a core public health, social and economic imperative of modern society.

 

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Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders (Contemporary Neurology Series)

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Feb 142018
 

Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders the latest edition to the Contemporary Neurology Series, will cover the signs, the pathophysiology, the genetics (where applicable), and the treatment options of each form of hyperkinetic movement disorder. There is a presentation of clinically-focused information regarding the full spectrum of neurological and psychiatric conditions characterized by involuntary movements. With Parkinson’s disease as the most common hypokinetic movement disorder, the book expands on other hyperkinetic movement disorders where substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of these hyperkinesia disorders and in motor control, muscle tone, posture, and cognitive processes. Although therapies that target pathogenesis are still lacking, effective management of hyperkinetic movement disorders demands that physicians are knowledgeable about current and novel pharmacological and surgical approaches. Following background information about how to approach hyperkinetic movement disorders and the neural circuitry underlying them, there are individual chapters that cover tremor, dystonia, Huntington’s disease (and other choreas, athetosis, ballism), Tourette’s syndrome (and other tic disorders), habits, mannerisms, compulsions, stereotypies, myoclonus, drug-induced disorders, Wilson’s disease, hyperkinetic movement disorders with a peripheral trigger and those of unclear origin, and psychogenic movement disorders. Chapters include sections on clinical phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis and therapy. There are also on-line resources for clinicians and patients to refer to as well. The experienced authors have specifically selected scientific and other published information that best helps clinicians understand, diagnose and optimally treat hyperkinetic movement disorders. The authors’ approach is comprehensive yet focused and practical with an emphasis on clinical care

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Cannabinoids and the Brain by Linda A. Parker

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Feb 142018
 

The cannabis plant has been used for recreational and medicinal purposes for more than 4,000 years, but the scientific investigation into its effects has only recently yielded useful results. In this book, Linda Parker offers a review of the scientific evidence on the effects of cannabinoids on brain and behavioral functioning, with an emphasis on potential therapeutic uses.

Parker describes the discovery of tetrahydocannbinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, and the further discovery of cannabinoid receptors in the brain. She explains that the brain produces chemicals similar to THC, which act on the same receptors as THC, and shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in all aspects of brain functioning. Parker reports that cannabis contains not only the psychoactive compound THC, but also other compounds of potential therapeutic benefit, and that one of them, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promise for the treatment of pain, anxiety, and epilepsy. Parker reviews the evidence on cannabinoids and anxiety, depression, mood, sleep, schizophrenia, learning and memory, addiction, sex, appetite and obesity, chemotherapy-induced nausea, epilepsy, and such neurodegenerative disorders as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s Disease. Each chapter also links the scientific evidence to historical and anecdotal reports of the medicinal use of cannabis.

As debate about the medical use of marijuana continues, Parker’s balanced and objective review of the fundamental science and potential therapeutic effects of cannabis is especially timely.

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Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia

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Feb 132018
 

 

Alzheimer’s is swiftly on the rise: it is estimated that every 67 seconds, someone develops the disease. For many, the words “Alzheimer’s disease” or “dementia” immediately denote severe mental loss and, perhaps, madness. Indeed, the vast majority of media coverage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other types of dementia focuses primarily on the losses experienced by people diagnosed and the terrible burden felt by care partners yearning for a “magic bullet” drug cure.

Providing an accessible, question-and-answer-format primer on what touches so many lives, and yet so few of us understand, Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia: What Everyone Needs to Know® contributes what is urgently missing from public knowledge: unsparing investigation of their causes and manifestations, and focus on the strengths possessed by people diagnosed. Steven R. Sabat mines a large body of research to convey the genetic and biological aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, its clinical history, and, most significantly, to reveal the subjective experience of those with Alzheimer’s or dementia. By clarifying the terms surrounding dementia and Alzheimer’s, which are two distinct conditions, Sabat corrects dangerous misconceptions that plague our understanding of memory dysfunction and many other significant abilities that people with AD and dementia possess even in the moderate to severe stages. People diagnosed with AD retain awareness, thinking ability, and sense of self; crucially, Sabat demonstrates that there are ways to facilitate communication even when the person with AD has great difficulty finding the words he or she wants to use. From years spent exploring and observing the points of view and experiences of people diagnosed, Sabat strives to inform as well as to remind readers of the respect and empathy owed to those diagnosed and living with dementia.

Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia conveys this type of information and more, which, when applied by family and professional caregivers, will help improve the quality of life of those diagnosed as well as of those who provide support and care.

“Professor Sabat’s international renown as an expert in the field stems from his advocacy of a humane approach to people with different types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. In this new book his views are presented with typical clarity. What he says can only be helpful both to people living with dementia and to their friends, families and professional carers. It’s vintage Sabat: always look to the social environment; what’s going on in the brain is never the end of the story! And he tells the story with remarkable sympathy and expertise.”–Julian C Hughes, RICE Professor of Old Age Psychiatry, University of Bristol

“Steve Sabat’s widely recognized and resonant voice has infused a transformative and compelling humanity into our personal and cultural narratives about people with dementia across the globe. His thought-provoking, compassionate, and instructive content throughout this new book is grounded in his core and profoundly important message–to never give up on the person by giving in to the diagnosis.” – Lisa Snyder, MSW, LCSW , Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, University of California, San Diego

“It has helped me become more hopeful for a better future for all people with dementia, and I believe this book will help others find ways to live with dementia, as it informs those without dementia how to support us to do that. There is a gross and systemic underestimation of the capacity of people with dementia, even in the later stages of the disease. This book focuses on our capacity, and what we can still do to find meaning and purpose in our lives.”- Kate Swaffer, Chair, CEO, & Co-founder, Dementia Alliance International

Steven R. Sabat, Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Georgetown University, is a three-time recipient of the Edward B. Bunn Award for excellence in teaching and a recipient of the College Dean’s Award and College Academic Council Award for excellence in teaching at Georgetown. His research has focused on the remaining cognitive and social strengths, and the subjective experience of people with Alzheimer’s disease. He is the author of The Experience of Alzheimer’s Disease: Life Through a Tangled Veil (Blackwell Publishers, 2001) and co-editor of Dementia: Mind, Meaning, and the Person (Oxford University Press, 2006

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Advanced MR Neuroimaging: From Theory to Clinical Practice

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Feb 132018
 

 

Over the last decade, some of the greatest achievements in the field of neuroimaging have been related to remarkable advances in magnetic resonance techniques, including diffusion, perfusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI. Such techniques have provided valuable insights into tissue microstructure, microvasculature, metabolism and brain connectivity.

Previously available mostly in research environments, these techniques are now becoming part of everyday clinical practice in a plethora of clinical MR systems. Nevertheless, despite growing interest and wider acceptance, there remains a lack of a comprehensive body of knowledge on the subject, exploring the intrinsic complexity and physical difficulty of the techniques.

This book focuses on the basic principles and theories of diffusion, perfusion, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional MRI. It also explores their clinical applications and places emphasis on the associated artifacts and pitfalls with a comprehensive and didactic approach.

This book aims to bridge the gap between research applications and clinical practice. It will serve as an educational manual for neuroimaging researchers and radiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, and physicists with an interest in advanced MR techniques. It will also be a useful reference text for experienced clinical scientists who wish to optimize their multi-parametric imaging approach.

 

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The Enteric Nervous System: 30 Years Later

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Feb 132018
 

Nearly 30 years ago, a number of scientists working on the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) gathered at Flinders University, in Adelaide, Australia to discuss the advances and future of their research. It was a friendly and stimulating meeting, attended by most of the major players, in what was to become the discipline of ‘Neurogastroenterology’. In 2014, the main Australasian Neuroscience Society meeting was held in Adelaide, Australia, providing the perfect opportunity to recreate a follow-up ENS meeting. As such, the ‘ENS II 2014 meeting’ aimed to identify how far the field of enteric neuroscience had developed, where the future was heading, and what technological advances had been made to address current and future unresolved questions. 30 speakers from around the world were invited to give talks and revisit the original expectations, the advances made since, and the future directions of ENS research. These discussions included three generations of investigators from 7 different countries. This publication represents the majority of proceedings from the ‘The Enteric Nervous System II 2014’ conference, which was held on February 1st – 2nd 2014 at the National Wine Centre of Australia, Adelaide. This meeting was an Official satellite meeting of the 34th Annual Meeting of Australasian Neuroscience Society, which was also held in Adelaide. The 20 contributions contained within this submission are from international researchers in the field of the ENS, who reviewed the advances made since the first meeting in the early 1980s and summarizes the present and future perspectives of neuro-gastroenterology. Some colleagues could not attend but did send greetings and their messages are included in these proceedings.
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